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Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) Protocol 10

Timeline of the creation of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) 

Rejected by France

Despite the central role for France, the EDC plan collapsed when it failed to obtain ratification in the French Parliament. The reasons that led to the failed ratification of the Treaty were twofold, concerning major changes in the international scene, as well as domestic problems of the French Fourth Republic.[9] There were Gaullist fears that the EDC threatened France's national sovereignty, constitutional concerns about the indivisibility of the French Republic, and fears about West Germany's remilitarization. French Communists opposed a plan tying France to the capitalist United States and setting it in opposition to the Communist bloc. Other legislators worried about the absence of the United Kingdom. The EDC went for ratification in the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954, and failed by a vote of 319 against 264. By this time, concerns about a future conflict faded with the death of Joseph Stalin and the end of the Korean War. Concomitant to these fears were a severe disjuncture between the original Pleven Plan of 1950 and the one defeated in 1954. Divergences included military integration at the division rather than battalion level and a change in the command structure putting the NATO Supreme Commander in charge of EDC operational capabilities. Italy also never ratified the treaty.[10][11] Then French Prime Minister, Pierre Mendès-France, tried to placate the treaty's detractors by attempting to ratify additional protocols with the other signatory states. These included the sole integration of covering forces, or in other words, those deployed within West Germany, as well as the implementation of greater national autonomy in regard to budgetary and other administrative questions. Britain approved of the plan in principle, but agreed to join only if the supranational element was decreased.

The treaty never went into effect. Instead, after the failed ratification in the French National Assembly, Germany was admitted into NATO[12] and the EC member states tried to create foreign policy cooperation in the De Gaulle-sponsored Fouchet Plan (1959–1962). European foreign policy was finally established during the third attempt with European Political Cooperation (EPC) (1970). This became the predecessor of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

Today the European Union and NATO, and formerly also the Western European Union, all carry out some of the functions which was envisaged for the EDC, although none approach the degree of supranational military control that the EDC would have provided for.

1954

European Defence Community

Joint Declaration on European Defence Joint Declaration issued at the British-French Summit (Saint-Malo, 4 December 1998)

The Heads of State and Government of France and the United Kingdom are agreed that:

 

1. The European Union needs to be in a position to play its full role on the international stage. This means making a reality of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which will provide the essential basis for action by the Union. It will be important to achieve full and rapid implementation of the Amsterdam provisions on CFSP. This includes the responsibility of the European Council to decide on the progressive framing of a common defence policy in the framework of CFSP. The Council must be able to take decisions on an intergovernmental basis, covering the whole range of activity set out in Title V of the Treaty of European Union.

2. To this end, the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises. In pursuing our objective, the collective defence commitments to which member states subscribe (set out in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Article V of the Brussels Treaty) must be maintained. In strengthening the solidarity between the member states of the European Union, in order that Europe can make its voice heard in world affairs, while acting in conformity with our respective obligations in NATO, we are contributing to the vitality of a modernised Atlantic Alliance which is the foundation of the collective defence of its members. Europeans will operate within the institutional framework of the European Union (European Council, General Affairs Council, and meetings of Defence Ministers). The reinforcement of European solidarity must take into account the various positions of European states. The different situations of countries in relation to NATO must be respected.

3. In order for the European Union to take decisions and approve military action where the Alliance as a whole is not engaged, the Union must be given appropriate structures and a capacity for analysis of situations, sources of intelligence, and a capability for relevant strategic planning, without unnecessary duplication, taking account of the existing assets of the WEU and the evolution of its relations with the EU. In this regard, the European Union will also need to have recourse to suitable military means (European capabilities pre-designated within NATO’s European pillar or national or multinational European means outside the NATO framework).

 

4. Europe needs strengthened armed forces that can react rapidly to the new risks, and which are supported by a strong and competitive European defence industry and technology.

5. We are determined to unite in our efforts to enable the European Union to give concrete expression to these objectives​

1998

Saint - Malo Declaration 

Art 43-45 TEU: 43:  "the Union may use civilian and military means, shall include joint disarmament operations, humanitarian and rescue tasks, military advice and assistance tasks, conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks, tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peace-making and post-conflict stabilisation.

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, acting under the authority of the Council and in close and constant contact with the Political and Security Committee, shall ensure coordination of the civilian and military aspects of such tasks.

44: the Council may entrust the implementation of a task to a group of Member States which are willing and have the necessary capability for such a task.

Member States participating in the task shall keep the Council regularly informed of its progress on their own initiative or at the request of another Member State.

45: The Establishing article  of what is now known as The European Defence Agency.

Art 40 TEU: "The implementation of the common foreign and security policy shall not affect the application of the procedures and the extent of the powers of the institutions laid down by the Treaties for the exercise of the Union competences referred to in Articles 3 to 6 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union." 

1997/1999

Amsterdam 

Art 43-45 TEU: 43:  "the Union may use civilian and military means, shall include joint disarmament operations, humanitarian and rescue tasks, military advice and assistance tasks, conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks, tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peace-making and post-conflict stabilisation.

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, acting under the authority of the Council and in close and constant contact with the Political and Security Committee, shall ensure coordination of the civilian and military aspects of such tasks.

44: the Council may entrust the implementation of a task to a group of Member States which are willing and have the necessary capability for such a task.

Member States participating in the task shall keep the Council regularly informed of its progress on their own initiative or at the request of another Member State.

45: The Establishing article  of what is now known as The European Defence Agency.

Art 40- 41 TEU:

40: "The implementation of the common foreign and security policy shall not affect the application of the procedures and the extent of the powers of the institutions laid down by the Treaties for the exercise of the Union competences referred to in Articles 3 to 6 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union." 

41:

"1.Administrative expenditure to which the implementation of this Chapter gives rise for the institutions shall be charged to the Union budget.

2. Operating expenditure to which the implementation of this Chapter gives rise shall also be charged to the Union budget, except for such expenditure arising from operations having military or defence implications and cases where the Council acting unanimously decides otherwise.

In cases where expenditure is not charged to the Union budget, it shall be charged to the Member States in accordance with the gross national product scale"

2001/2003

Nice

Art I 43: 

"The Union and its Member States shall act jointly in a spirit of solidarity if a Member State is the object of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster. The Union shall mobilise all the instruments at its disposal, including the military resources made available by the Member States, to:

National Parliaments may, within the framework of the area of freedom, security and justice,

(a) —

prevent the terrorist threat in the territory of the Member States;

  • —  protect democratic institutions and the civilian population from any terrorist attack;

  • —  assistaMemberStateinitsterritory,attherequestofitspoliticalauthorities,intheeventofa

    terrorist attack;

    (b) assist a Member State in its territory, at the request of its political authorities, in the event of a natural or man-made disaster."

Art III 324-329: Instruction, rules and governance of International Agreements

Art III 325.2 " The Council shall authorise the opening of negotiations, adopt negotiating directives, authorise the signing of agreements and conclude them. "​ 

Art I 40.6, "6. European decisions relating to the common foreign and security policy shall be adopted by the European Council and the Council unanimously, except in the cases referred to in Part III. The European Council and the Council shall act on an initiative from a Member State, on a proposal from the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs or on a proposal from that Minister with the Commission's support. European laws and framework laws shall be excluded."

Art I 40.7 "7. The European Council may, unanimously, adopt a European decision authorising the Council to act by a qualified majority in cases other than those referred to in Part III."

2003

Draft Constitution

Art 20 TEU: Provisions on Enhanced COoperation

326-334 TFEU: General rules about enhanced cooperation governance and compliance.

Art 329.2 TFEU: 

"The request of the Member States which wish to establish enhanced cooperation between themselves within the framework of the common foreign and security policy shall be addressed to the Council. It shall be forwarded to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who shall give an opinion on whether the enhanced cooperation proposed is consistent with the Union's common foreign and security policy, and to the Commission, which shall give its opinion in particular on whether the enhanced cooperation proposed is consistent with other Union policies. It shall also be forwarded to the European Parliament for information.

Authorisation to proceed with enhanced cooperation shall be granted by a decision of the Council acting unanimously."

Art 42.6: 6. "Those Member States whose military capabilities fulfil higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding missions shall establish permanent structured cooperation within the Union framework. Such cooperation shall be governed by Article 46. It shall not affect the provisions of Article 43. " 

46 TEU: PESCO establishing Article & general rules for it set out 

Protocol 10: PESCO Protocol which includes more in-depth details of PESCO 

2007/2009

Lisbon 

On 13 November 2017:  Was the first formal step towards setting up PESCO, Ministers signed a common notification on the PESCO and handed it over to the High Representative and the Council. 

on 11 December 2017, the Council took the historic step to adopt a decision establishing PESCO and its list of participants. A total of 25 Member States decided to participate in PESCO[1].

2017

PESCO Established 

On 6 March 2018, the Council adopted a Recommendation which sets out a roadmap for the further implementation of PESCO.

On 6 March 2018, the Council formally adopted the first set of 17 different projects and the project members for each of them.

 

On 25 June 2018, the Council adopted a Decision establishing the common set of governance rules for the PESCO projects. It includes an obligation to report on progress to the Council once a year, based on the roadmap with objectives and milestones agreed within each project.

2018

PESCO continues 

 

PESCO Press Release 2017

White Paper on the future of Europe 2017

Press Release

White Paper on the future of Europe 2017

In Defence of Europe 2015

Debate open on Security & Defence Union 2017

 

European COuncil

council recommendation concerning a roadmap for PESCO 

Council decision to establish 17 PESCO projects

Donald Tusk on PESCO

Donald Tusk to the EUropean council 

What is pesco?

PESCO established

Council decision to establish pesco

 

Q

And on military mobility - are there still any issues you see with non-NATO Member States, neutral countries like Austria?

A

"I don't see particular problems neither with non-NATO Member States nor with NATO or with NATO allies that are not European Union Member States. On PESCO projects: Some Member States already today have started to flag ideas or new projects that would be presented as PESCO projects towards the end of the year."

What is the European External Action Service?

The European External Action Service is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the European Union

Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD)

CARD is run by the European Defence Agency, by the  monitoring of national defence spending this, will help identify opportunities for new collaborative initiatives.

European Defence Fund

The EDF provides financial incentives for Member States to foster defence cooperation from research to the development phase of capabilities including prototypes through co-financing from the EU budget. PESCO projects may benefit from increased EU co-financing, which could amount to 30% - instead of 20% - for prototypes.

See what the European External Action Service has to say about Security & Defence with their Summer Series. 

Permanent Structured Cooperation - PESCO Factsheet

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EU Institute of Security Studies 

 

Permanent structured cooperation: Whats in a name? 

Yearbook of European security 2018

 

Jean Monnet

Jean Monnet on Defence

  • One of the Founding fathers of the EU

"i had never believed that we should tackle the problem of Europe via defence. ..it seemed to me by no means the most powerful of compelling motive for unity"(Monnet Memoirs, 1978:338)

Gallery of relevant pages of  Monnet Memoirs